Guide To Free On Board Shipping

fob shipping point

This ensures that you can file a claim in the event of loss or damage of the cargo. The seller must deliver the goods to the port of origin within the agreed upon duration. On FOB shipping point, the seller/supplier is responsible for all the costs involved in getting the cargo onto the transport vessel.

Any costs incurred for loading the goods on to the cargo ship are also the seller’s responsibility. For instance, if goods are designated as “FOB Miami” it means the seller is responsible for the cost of transporting the goods to the port of Miami. Furthermore, all the risks involved in transportation of the goods are transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded onto the vessel.

If the buyer wishes to cover the goods for loss or damage, the buyer is responsible for that cost, as well as the cost for customs import fees and taxes. The two terms have a specific meaning what are retained earnings in commercial law and cannot be altered. The last distinction is important for determining liability or risk of loss for goods lost or damaged in transit from the seller to the buyer.

The importer ought to communicate to the supplier the details of the carrier vessel, date of delivery and any time limitations well in time before date of delivery. Securing cargo space in the vessel, cargo charges, insurance cover, among other expenses are the buyer’s responsibilities.

fob shipping point

The seller must settle the expenses of those checking activities which are needed for the aim of delivering the products in compliance with A4. The seller must supply the importer at the seller’s bill with the normal evidence of delivery in compliance with A4. When purchasing on FOB shipping terms, the seller’s roles and obligations extend extra further than just carrying the merchandise to the port of loading. It is because the fees and export licenses you may need for every port can vary.

Why Its Important To Know Origin From Destination

Accountants need to know whether to include the freight on the company’s balance sheet when the goods are shipped or when they are delivered. Similarly, when Old Navy incurs other costs related to inventory, such as renting a warehouse, paying for utilities, and securing the warehouse, those costs are also added to inventory.

Yet, as a part of discipline it can be agreed upon as a seller’s matter of concern till the port. Likewise, at the buyer’s request, the seller may contribute his assistance to the buyer for insurance and customs provisions. In FOB, the seller is responsible from the point of origin i.e. maintaining goods and transporting them till the delivery point. Similar to the FCA Incoterm, this option can often be the most cost-effective one for buyers since the seller can take care of much of the transport and negotiation in their origin country. Unlike EXW and FCA, the DAT Incoterm requires the sellers to pay for all the costs to deliver a shipment all the way through to the destination terminal. Some buyers choose EXW because it offers them the lowest cost from the seller. However, this Incoterm may end up costing buyers more in the end, especially if the buyer doesn’t have experience negotiating in the origin country.

Least Frequently Used Incoterms

As an example of FOB destination accounting, suppose the value of the goods is 5,000 and the freight expense to the buyers destination of 600 is paid in cash by the seller. FOB destination, is used to mean the seller of the goods pays all expenses in putting the goods ‘on board’ the transport, and delivering them to the buyers destination.

This means that your shipment is in the proverbial hands of the supplier through the process of transporting them to a port and loading them aboard a ship. CFR includes neither insurance nor the costs associated with getting the delivery to your final destination. Depending on the FOB terms, the more often a company orders inventory, the more shipping and insurance costs it will incur. Companies can also incur costs when placing an inventory order through the price of hiring labor to unload the goods as well as the cost of leasing a warehouse to store the goods. A company can lower its inventory costs by ordering greater quantities and reducing the number of individual shipments it brings in.

  • As a seller, when you send the shipment via a third-party carrier like UPS, you should use a bill of lading.
  • It is important to understand the difference because this can also show up in liability claims by one party to another.
  • FCA considers goods delivered once seller places goods on transport arranged by buyer.
  • Although insurance is included, only minimal coverage is required, so the seller may want to purchase additional insurance to ensure the full value is accounted for.
  • As such, it is preferable to use incoterms that are explicitly designed for container shipping.

The supply chain is no exception, so much so that a system specific to the logistics industry was created to clearly communicate the expectations and responsibilities of each party in a transaction. We ledger account will keep you up to date on the latest services and technologies to help you save time and money on shipping. Sign up for email offers, insights, and industry news that can help improve your shipping.

The freight cost from the shipping point to the buyers destination is 700. Since FOB shipping point transfers the title of the shipment of goods when the goods are placed at the shipping point, the legal title of those goods is transferred to the buyer.

Fob Pricing: What Is The Difference Between Fob And Other Ocean Shipping Incoterms?

Usually means that the seller transfers the freight fees to the shipper. Means that the seller pays the prepayment part with the balance of the fee charged on the freight becoming the obligation of the buyer. The term means that the buyer or consignee assumes the responsibility of paying the freight. Since the introduction of Incoterm FCA in 1980, FOB has been considered mainly for non-containerized inland waterway and marine freight transport. The phrase “FOB” was applied to refer to cargo hauled by ship, It is because marine transport was the leading method of transportation for goods from far nations. The contract only expresses who is responsible for the cost of shipping.

fob shipping point

This is still the case, but with the addition of air freight and courier shipping, all thanks to the rise of e-commerce websites like Alibaba. So by default, Chinese sellers tend to use the nearest port, depending on their location. Usually, when shipping FOB from China, you will find the term “FOB” is followed by another word such as Shanghai or Shenzhen. Container shipping, note, is only possible with multimodal, non-exclusive incoterms. As such, it is preferable to use incoterms that are explicitly designed for container shipping. Hence, it is often included in shipping documents to help determine the cost of goods and the dutiable amount of imported goods. On the other hand, a buyer should book these costs to the cost of goods sold .

With a FOB shipping point sale, the buyer assumes all responsibility and legal liability for the goods purchased. This means that the buyer is responsible for recording the sale at the point of transport within their accounts payable, meaning that an increase in their inventory has taken place. Conversely, the seller records the point of sale at the time of shipment and records the sale within their accounts receivable, as an added payment, whether the payment has been made or is waiting to be made. FOB value for both buyer and seller can be calculated as per these costs incurred by them as per FOB rules. FOB destination transfers the title of shipped goods when it arrives at the buyer’s specified delivery location—usually the buyer’s loading dock, post office box, or office building. As soon as the goods arrive at the buyer’s delivery location, the legal title of the goods transfers from the seller to the buyer.

The buyer will take up all the port handling fees at the destination harbor. Even though your supplier will assume responsibility for the bill on their side, it is vital to remember that, it is you the buyer who will pay for all the bills in the long run. Cost of carrying the goods from the port of destination to the buyer’s store. The buyer must settle the expenses of any pre-shipment inspection other than when such inspection is ordered by the administration of the country of export.


Under the FOB terms, buyers do not usually pay the higher fees that CIF protection plans incur. With FOB, the buyer has more flexibility and control of the terms, the cost, freight shipping planning, and more. This is mainly due to the fact that they select their freight forwarder. Shipping of commodities – especially internationally, doesn’t always fob shipping point go off without a hitch. Moving freight from international ports often requires multiple handling, different methods of transport, and in most cases, several stops before it reaches your point of delivery. With so many hands handling your commodities, and potential for damage, many responsible buyers opt to purchase FOB shipping protection.

When you’re shipping from China to U.K., and consignments reach their destination without EORI number, you’ll get stranded. New buyers shipping using CIF are usually caught off guard since they do not understand some of the vital stages in the importing procedure. Though CIF terms is applied successfully by most exporters, importers and shipping companies, it comes with its risks. Depending on the circumstances, you are at liberty to choose any incoterm when shipping from China. But, in the event a term of sale does not exist, the standard FOB terms will take effect.

In “FOB destination”, transfer happens when the cargo is retrieved from the transport on arriving at the buyer’s location. It refers to the point at which the shipping cost is no longer the seller’s responsibility. Only after the purchased goods have reached the buyer’s location in perfect condition does the buyer accept them.

As soon as the vessel leaves the port of origin, whether it reaches the buyer destination port or not, he or she will bear the results of anything that happens. The extra charges show the seller’s increased costs, though it will not raise your overall cost of shipping. However, the transfer of risk would rely on the agreement between the shipping company and the buyer. Risk of damage or loss shifts to either the shipping company or the buyer. Also, the buyer covers the freight charges as the supplier transports and loads the cargo. Of course, this is until the shipment is put onto the shipping vessel or any other transportation mode. FOB destination mandates the supplier to meet the expenses and is liable of the risks of shipping from China to a specific destination.

The passing of risks occurs when the goods are loaded on board at the port of shipment. For example, “FOB Vancouver” indicates that the seller will pay for transportation of the goods to the port of Vancouver, and the cost of loading the goods on to the cargo ship . Responsibility for the goods is with the seller until the goods are loaded on board the ship. If the terms include the phrase “FOB destination, freight collect,” the seller has title and control over the shipment until it’s been delivered, and the buyer is responsible for freight charges. If the terms include “FOB destination, freight prepaid,” the seller retains ownership until delivery, provided there are no insurance claims. On the other hand, “FOB origin” or “FOB shipping point” indicates the opposite—that the buyer takes ownership as soon as the vendor ships the goods. To understand each designation, we must first understand the difference between place of origin and place of destination and freight collect vs. freight prepaid.

means that the seller pays for transportation of the goods to the port of shipment, plus loading costs. The buyer pays the cost of marine freight transport, insurance, unloading, and transportation from the arrival port to the final destination.

After export clearance, goods are transported via sea or waterway to the FOB destination point. At the seller’s location, your goods are packed and loaded onto a truck for inland transportation. FOB shipping is a multi-stage process that begins at the seller’s factory/warehouse and ends at the buyer’s location. FOB shipping is suitable if you’re shipping bulk cargo to your warehouse or distribution point. For example, by employing the use of DDP terms or other shipping Incoterms that constitute shipping, to minimize emerging problems due to damage in transit. When the importing special or delicate products, then the supplier may decide to have total control during transportation.

Author: Andrea Wahbe